# Verbatim versus gist processes

mechanisms underlying memory deficits in persons with schizophrenia. by Edward Patrick McAnanama

Written in English

The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether persons with schizophrenia (SCZ) can appropriately utilize verbatim versus gist memory under recall conditions that emphasize one or the other. Ninety minutes after reading a brief prose passage, half of the participants were instructed to recall the story using the title that they were provided at encoding (i.e., same-title condition). The remaining participants were asked to recall the passage using an alternate title (i.e., switch-title condition). Control participants in the switch-title condition produced lower rates of gist intrusions and higher verbatim memory units than the same-title condition. However, SCZ participants demonstrated no change in gist intrusions and lower verbatim units in the switch-title condition. These findings are consistent with previous investigations of SCZ-related verbatim memory deficits, but also suggest impairment in the ability to appropriately deploy memory processes.

The Physical Object
Pagination152 leaves.
Number of Pages152
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20239067M
ISBN 10049402531X

A number of researchers have examined peoples' information-processing strategies so as to gain insight into factors that influence attitude formation and decision making (for a review, see Chaiken and Trope ).Researchers in marketing and social and cognitive psychology have identified a number of individual (e.g., gender, cultural orientation), stimulus (e.g., argument quality, source Cited by: for the ‘‘gist’’ of a story is likely more effective for preserving the intent of the story than is verbatim recall of a story text (Brainerd and Reyna ). In order for a listener to understand, the story must be coherent; it must ﬂow in an organized manner and should include all central plot points (Diehl et al. ). Individuals whoCited by: 6. The reason you don’t see packages that don’t contain ANY of the gluten three labeled as being “Gluten-free” is that often the same facility that processes one of the gluten containing grains will also process non-gluten grains like oats, quinoa, teff, millet, rice amaranth, etc., and in the process pick up tiny amounts of grain dust /5(86). This model accepts the traditional dual process distinction between reflective processes that promote rationality and emotional or impulsive processes that subvert rationality, but also predicts a separable effect of the type of mental representation relied upon (gist or verbatim) and associated processing.

Principle 3 is based on dual-opponent processes in false memory. Generally, gist retrieval supports false memory, while verbatim retrieval suppresses it. Developmental variability is the topic of Principle 4. As a child develops into an adult, there is obvious improvement in the acquisition, retention, and retrieval of both verbatim and gist. Desperately seeking evidence: The recovered memory debate Introduction In the s we have seen a startling rise in reports of memories of childhood sexual abuse from adults alleging that the memories were previously `unavailable' to them. The FTT proposes that there are two parallel memory traces, the verbatim trace and the gist trace (Brianerd & Reyna, ; Reyna & Brainerd, ). The verbatim trace stores information item-by-item and is a verdicial representation of an event. The gist trace stores a generalised meaning based representation of an event.   Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been by:

Cognitive Science and the. Common Core Mathematics Standards. Eric A. Nelson 1. Abstract. Between and , most U.S. states adopted K–12 math standards which discouraged memorization of math facts and procedures. Since , most states have revised standards to align with the K–12 Common Core Mathematics Standards (CCMS). The most important skill in taking minutes is listening carefully to what is said, and mentally sorting the wheat from the chaff as you take notes. (that is, recording only points of substance). You'll have to do this mental sorting sooner or later, so try to train yourself to do it in the course of the meeting. If you tape-record the minutes.   The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects Cited by: 6. book chapters on the theoretical and empirical bases of memory processing. In that lecture, questions of which memory processes and stores are most age sensitive are addressed, with the assum-p what is the task (words versus prose, recall versus recogn-i tion, gist versus verbatim recall), and what are the memorizer’s characteristics.

## Verbatim versus gist processes by Edward Patrick McAnanama Download PDF EPUB FB2

Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna that draws upon dual-trace [clarification needed] conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena, particularly in memory and reasoning.

The theory has been used in areas such as cognitive psychology, human development, and social psychology to explain, for instance, false. processing narratives for gist versus verbatim information, which inv olved activation centered over the right precentral sulcus.

The results support the notion that distinct aspects of verbal. Pauses in elementary school children's verbatim and gist free recall of a story Article in Cognitive Development 23(3) July with 14 Reads How we measure 'reads'.

Mathematical models are useful in testing such predictions involving opposing processes, in this instance, verbatim-based analysis versus gist-based intuition (e.g., Reyna & Brainerd, ).

Models incorporating simple assumptions from fuzzy-trace theory have been tested for goodness-of-fit to real data and evaluated against alternative models Cited by:   Findings from research on false memory have major implications for a number of fields central to human welfare, such as medicine and law.

Although many important conclusions have been reached after a decade or so of intensive research, the majority of them are not well known outside the immediate field.

To make this research accessible to a much wider audience, The Science of False 5/5(1). Children's Memory May Be More Reliable Than Adults' In Court Cases Date: Ma verbatim traces Verbatim versus gist processes book gist traces. Reyna and Brainerd's findings are summarized in a new book.

SUMMARY:This research aims to reduce risk taking, with an emphasis on unhealthy eating in adolescents and adults. Given the prevalence and growing rate of obesity, it is important to understand the neural mechanisms of risky decision making, particularly those resulting in poor or impulsive food choices.

Using EEG, we will test hypotheses based on previous work in order to. This defines two memory processes: remembering the general meaning of things (gist), and remembering things exactly as they are, such as word-for-word (verbatim).Author: Kevin Parrish.

Several developmental theories bear this out, including the change from concrete to abstract thinking (Piaget, ), fantasy versus reality appreciation (Sharon & Woolley, ), verbatim versus gist understanding underlying how memories are recalled or creating ‘pseudo-memories’ (Brainerd & Rayna, ), and reality–pretence.

Combining meaning, memory, and development, the perennially popular topic of intuition can be approached in a new way. Fuzzy-trace theory integrates these topics by distinguishing between meaning-based gist representations, which support fuzzy (yet advanced) intuition, and superficial verbatim representations of information, which support precise analysis.

We review the current status of fuzzy-trace theory. The presentation is organized around five topics. First, theoretical ideas that immediately preceded the development of fuzzy-trace theory are by: DEVELOPMENTAL REV () Gist Is the Grist: Fuzzy-Trace Theory and the New Intuitionism C. BRAINERD AND V.

REYNA University of Arizona Fuzzy-trace theory is a gist-driven interpretation of cognitive development that has descended from, but is distinctly different than, the Piagetian and information- processing by: Here gist and verbatim are the two processes which counter one another.

The use of verbatim in decision making can be futile and ineffective in altering an individuals’ judgement, as most individuals are dependent on using the gist of the information to make a decision. Mechanisms for editing false events out of memory reports have fundamental implications for theories of false memory and for best practice in applied domains in which false reports must be minimized (e.g., forensic psychological interviews, sworn testimony).

A mechanism posited in fuzzy-trace theory, recollection rejection, is considered. A process analysis of false-memory editing is presented Cited by:   As predicted, the testing effect was significant for both gist testing and verbatim testing, with a higher proportion of correct responses on the final memory test for gist-tested items ) than for untested items ), t(31) =p Cited by: a.

To develop verbatim traces by actively engaging with the material b. To develop as many gist traces as possible c. To allocate about 25% of his time to verbatim traces and 75% to gist traces d. To focus on the most essential gist traces of the subject matter.

In other ways, however, young children's metamemory is limited. They don't understand that related items are easier to remember than unre- lated ones or that remembering the gist of a story is easier than remembering infor- mation verbatim (Kreutzer & Flavell, ).

By fifth grade, students understand that gist recall is easier than verbatim. Because verbatim and gist traces are -floor from the start. Fourth, examination of false recall, in particular, reveals just how different memory distortion processes are in children versus adults.

In adults in a positive or negative mood, then they are exposed to neutral information (e.g., a prose passage from a history book Cited by: Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire pmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life.

News Articles Refereed Journal Articles Books Book Chapters Selected Lectures/Videos News Articles: Baildon, K. 5 Questions with Valerie Reyna, Department for Human Development Professor and Extension Leader.

CCE News. The development of gist versus verbatim memory in sentence recognition: Effects of lexical familiarity, semantic. We review the current status of fuzzy-trace theory. The presentation is organized around five topics.

First, theoretical ideas that immediately preceded the development of fuzzy-trace theory are sketched. Second, experimental findings that challenged those ideas (e.g., memory-reasoning independence, the intuitive nature of mature reasoning) are summarized.

Third, the core assumptions that. A recent study by the University of Plymouth's School of Psychology looked into why teens aged between 13 and 17 take more risks online than young adults do.

The research team discovered that it Author: Kevin Parrish. How verbal information is processed and recalled appears to be influenced by the structure of the information presented (e.g., unrelated sentences vs.

narratives) and the processes the listener uses to encode the information (e.g., verbatim encoding vs. gist extraction). Twenty adults, half with a history of learning disabilities (HLD) and half.

\item ln($y$) versus $x$, \item ln($y$) versus ln($x$), \item $y$ versus ln($x$), \item $y$ versus 1/ $x$, and \item ln($y$) versus 1/ $x$ \end {inparaenum}. Use any appropriate diagnostic plots and analyses to decide which of these functions you would select to specify a probabilistic model.

Explain your reasoning. As the 64th volume in the prestigious Nebraska Series on Motivation, this book focuses on impulsivity, a multi-faceted concept that encompasses such phenomena as the inability to wait, a tendency to act without forethought, insensitivity to consequences, and/or an inability to inhibit inappropriate behaviors.

Due to this multi-faceted nature, it plays a critical role in a number of key. Results support Fuzzy-Trace Theory’s predictions by showing that the type of mental representation relied on by an individual (gist or verbatim) predicts plea bargain decisions—with those relying on gist being more influenced by categorical meaning-based distinctions, such as being guilty versus innocent or getting a felony versus misdemeanor.

A few strategies I do to take notes while reading that helps with this are: Jot notes in the margin. These aren’t particularly searchable (if the book is text, not Kindle), but they allow me to reiterate the main idea, so I can convince myself I understood it. Keep a small notepad on the side, take breaks each section to jot down the main.

The contrast effect is a cognitive bias that distorts our perception of something when we compare it to something else, by enhancing the differences between them. This comparison can be either explicit or implicit, simultaneous or at separate points in time, and can apply to various traits, ranging from physical qualities, such as color and taste, to more abstract qualities, such as price and.

The retrieval processes of healthy older adults remained stable over time, in contrast to the MCI/AD participants who showed longitudinal declines in reconstructive recall. These results are consistent with hypotheses proposed by Reyna & Mills, about the neural integrity of verbatim traces and neural redundancy of gist traces.

(That is, gist-based preferences are decreased when expected value conflicts with gist, such as when 1/3 probability of saving lives is substituted for Program B in the example above; the degree of suppression depends on individual differences in numeracy and other factors).3 Similarly, verbatim processing of words and sentences occurs in Cited by: 4.

adolescence: Differential effects of verbatim-based versus gist-based interventions. Paper presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, Chicago, IL. Mills, B.A., Estrada, S.M., Reyna, V.F.

(, October). Reducing risk taking in adolescence: effectiveness of a gist-based curriculum.The theory explains how in-parallel thought processes are represented in your mind.

While verbatim representations – such as facts, figures, dates and other indisputable data – are literal, gist representations encompass a broad, general, imprecise meaning.Gestalt psychology or gestaltism is a school of psychology that emerged in Austria and Germany in the early twentieth century based on work by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka.

As used in Gestalt psychology, the German word gestalt (/ ɡ ə ˈ ʃ t æ l t,-ˈ ʃ t ɑː l t,-ˈ ʃ t ɔː l t,-ˈ s t ɑː l t,-ˈ s t ɔː l t / gə-SHTA(H)LT, -⁠ STAHLT, -⁠ S(H)TAWLT, German.